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My name is Georgios Gregoriadis. I am an experienced physicist with a strong background in Astronomy. I graduated from the University of Ioannina in 2002. I am a private teacher and owner of this website.

Space tourism is the major aspect of the aviation industry that gives tourists a chance to become astronauts. Space tourism was started to experience space travel for entertainment or business purposes. But space tourism is very expensive so a very small part of customers are able and willing to buy a space experience. Gagarin became the first man to travel in space in 1960 and he also began the commercial jet age and the accidental crash rate for commercial flying was 36 each million departures annually. By the start of 2013, commercial aviation the crash rate reduced and the crashes per million departures had considerably reduced to 2.8.


Harmful effects of accidents on space tourism

It is said that crashes, accidents and other problems show that space travel is far away from being a safe technology to be suitable for space tourists. The major problem in space tourism is space travel's crash rate. Regardless of the fact that they are the most successful spacecraft systems, they still fail more than 5%of the time. Virgin Galactic's spacecraft now has the same failure rate due to having crashed after only 23 powered test space flights. But this crash rate can be brought down if you put space tourism equivalent with climbing Mount Everest which is a dangerous activity but still it attracts nearly more than thousand wealthy and adventurous customers annually.

Space science still has a failure rate of approximately 4 to 5% which is a very considerable rate. Aerospace Experts say that crashes and accidents of the spacecraft have proved a setback for the fledgling arena of space tourism. But it can not stop an industry that has attracted a huge number of adventurous and ambitious billionaires such as Richard Branson, Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk from growing. They are still trying to open a gateway for ordinary people of their Country to travel into space. The customers of Virgin Galactic's would head to space solely. Might be possible that this level of danger could scare off consumers of spacecraft and ruin their business. Although hundreds of people have registered to pay 250,000 dollars for a short flight aboard SpaceShipTwo but some have gotten afraid after knowing about the recent accidental space crash.


Incidents with spacecrafts

When we talk about space, the order of magnitude of dangers and risks becomes higher. The US Space Shuttle has flown 135 times with two disastrous crash accidents before its retirement in 2011 on the other hand the Russian Soyuz rocket flew 123 times and similar to US space Shuttle two accidents occurred with it. For human space flight, there is a roundabout 65% chance of something going wrong with a spacecraft. This can be sometimes accepted by some astronauts who are used to dangers and risks but it's not good for wealthy and adventurous customers. Virgin Galactic was not going into the specified orbit, but there is a difference between space and aviation that serves to indicate the problems that are faced by safety designers.

You can say that the long-term effect of the crashes on the commercial aviation industry will be slight but it can create difficulties for the businesses that have already suffered the losses in a very short term.



The first basic step for moving towards an advanced type of regulation where the manufacturers of space launch systems, space habitat operators, etc. are totally separate from independent regulators. They could come in the portion of subsystems' surveys and certifications. When such environment safety examinations are happening, IV&V the certifications could be overviewed and regulated in many distinctive ways. This might be done by either governmental firms, independent inspectors/laboratories, or other designated firms that would offer completely separate surveys and certification for safety to the manufacturers of launch systems, the risk management and launch insurance agencies.

In the field of safety the main target at the systems and subsystems level would be to separate more completely the player and the referee. This should be applied to both commercial space-flight units and the public space units. It will prove to be the great move beyond chemical spacecrafts where every launch system was based on a small explosive and a high-risk event to a new atmosphere where the systems are reusable so that they did not involve dangerous and highly explosive systems.






The Kent’s Blue Origin has accomplished yet another milestone in a form of the 17th New Shepard Mission where the spacecraft successfully took a trip to space and returned for the program. As per the insights, it’s the eighth consecutive flight of this specific spacecraft to space. The spacecraft is the same one used for the first suborbital mission since founder Jeff Bezos and three crewmates reached a height of 66 miles last month. The Blue Origin's New Shepard booster was launched from West Texas on Thursday. This expedition, however, did not carry any humans on board. However, an array of research payloads, including some for NASA’s, were sent into space by the single-stage New Shepard rocket, which was launched last Thursday.

With 110,000 pounds of force, the BE-3 rocket engine pushed the New Shepard booster into space. On top of the rocket was a crew capsule, which had no humans. The crew capsule was later detached from the New Shepard rocket after achieving a maximum speed (2,229 miles per hour) after firing for more than two minutes. As the capsule descended, it reached a height of more than 105.6 kilometers over the internationally accepted border of space. Before landing, the booster activated air brakes and re-ignited its BE-3 engine to slow down. On Blue Origin's enormous 80,000-acre test facility's desert floor, the crew capsule released three primary parachutes and fired its own tiny retrorockets.

In addition to commercial payloads, the Aug. 26 trip contained a second flight of the Deorbit, Descent, and Landing (DDL) Sensor Demonstration, according to Blue Origin. When it flew for the second time, mounted on the exterior of New Shepard's rocket booster, the DDL demonstration, exhibited a technique meant to accomplish high precision landings on the lunar surface. This will allow space travel enthusiasts a long-term exploration of the moon.

Also of note were two flights of the OSCAR Trash to the Gas payload, which tested the efficiency of converting garbage into usable gases. The University of Florida's third flight of the "Biological Imaging in Support of Suborbital Sciences," assessed the accuracy of data gathering for biological studies; and Suborbital Triptych. In the crew capsule, Ghanaian artist Amoako Boafo painted three of the capsule's external panels respectively.

In the previous flight of the same spacecraft, Blue Origin carried Jeff Bezos, his brother, Wally Funk, and Oliver Daemen into suborbital space, marking the company's historic first-ever human trip. This time, it's carrying a NASA payload that will test technology, used to create a human landing mechanism for future missions to the moon. As per the insights, the payload of NASA on board is to test a Doppler lidar sensor array for future lunar landing vehicles, as well as a Descent Landing Computer for analyzing sensor data. Blue Origin tested this system in October of last year (2020), and modifications have already been made based on the results of that test, which have been included in this version.

A variety of additional experiments, both from NASA and from academic institutions such as the University of Florida, are also carried onboard at the Blue Origin spacecraft. Based on the mission’s launch, an initial take-off is followed by separation of the capsule, a controlled power landing for the booster, and finally parachute-assisted landing for the capsule after a few minutes spent in space tourism.

Back in 2018, NASA and Blue Origin signed a $3 million deal to fly terrain relative navigation, navigation doppler lidar, and other altimetry devices on New Shepard flights. It was decided before the takeoff that this flight will assist a navigating Doppler lidar and a terrain relative navigation camera mounted to the upper section of the New Shepard booster. Data from sensors would be sent to a navigation computer on a lunar landing mission to provide information about the spacecraft's location and speed.

After testing the same spacecraft several times, now the company has decided to open the spacecraft for space tourism for the public. Therefore, Future New Shepard missions are now available to paid space tourists and scientists. However, the price per seat has not been made public.



The NewSpace industry has its sights set on the growing market of space tourism which is expected to be worth at least 3 billion dollars by the start of 2030. Companies like SpaceX are testing reusable rocket technology for making space flight more affordable and accessible for ordinary humans, other private firms that also include Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin. They are also investing in suborbital space tourism to take people of earth into the edge of space and back. In the immediate future only wealthy people and private researchers will have access to space tourism but the long term holds promise for ordinary citizens also.

The analysis of the market of space tourism includes type segment, technology segment, and geography also. This study is very essential and responsible for identifying the increasing investments in space tourism during the next few years.


Innovation in Space Tourism
The advancement of innovation in the field of space tourism plays an imperative part for sending more tourists to space and some powerful trends will determine the future of space tourism, alongside the progress we make both on and off our own home planet. Private space companies devotedly invest across space tourism and firms like UBS consider access to space a gateway to broader opportunities for investment. It is expected that next-generation engineers will also enter the space tourism sector to increase the scope of opportunities and innovation and it will eventually decrease the barriers to entry that will increase competition, lower prices, and ultimately democratize space travel for ordinary citizens. For this purpose, there are essential safety, comfort and health factors to consider. Before tourists head to space there will need to be examining a few important things like training, medical screenings and liability waivers.
Since 1993, under way within the Japanese Rocket Society, the formal Space Tourism education Program is widely accepted as a suitable baseline for discussing the potential of establishing a commercial space tourism industry. It is predicted that the scenario developed as part of that study that the progress and certification of the "Kankoh-maru" VTOL passenger launch a vehicle which was specifically designed to carry 50 passengers to low Earth orbit ( LEO) with the involvement of 1200 test-flights by using 4 vehicles (following aviation practice). It would require at least 10 years and a budget of more than 12 billion dollars or less. The main point to note is that this is less than half of the annual budget of government space agencies nowadays. That's why it is clearly a very suitable and supportable level of investment for investors.
You can say that space tourism activities in 30 years will be based on the provision of an expanding range of commercial space travel services to the general citizens. If you extend the JRS scenario linearly to 2020, passenger numbers would reach 1 million every year after 10 years of working. Thereafter it looks suitable to project continued growth both in the number of customers and in the range of services that are offered. 
Place of Space Tourism in society in upcoming years
With regards to the instances of commercial space tourism experience,it is predictable that with a rise in the number of passengers, the expenses of services will consistently fall. This prompts the acceleration of the development of more recreational activities in orbit and it might be possible that demand for space tourism will increase.
Orbital tourism is another major focus of governmental firms and private space companies,which remains in space for at least one full orbit. It has the future goal to inhabit people on the moon and Mars. Projects such as Boeing, SpaceX and Axiom Space are planning to launch tourists to the International Space Station by the commercial spacecraft beginning as early as possible. SpaceX is also collaborating with Space Adventures for sending four tourists to LEO for some days in late 2021 or early 2022.
Space tourism may be considered a small subsector of the industry, but it will strongly support the entire New Space industry. Once space tourism does become conventional, it will also impact many social and economic factors on Earth in a positive manner such as creating jobs, educating people about space and promoting a new solar-based energy infrastructure. That is why space tourism will become important for normal life in the upcoming years.

1.  It frees the spatial ambition of traditional cargo.

The bold plan to put men on the Moon was backed by politicians and backed by billions of taxpayer dollars. By the time men set foot on the Moon, NASA's budget had already been cut. Subsequent American, Russian and European space programs, from the shuttles to the International Space Station (ISS), have suffered from political compromises and lack of ambition.

Private space flights, on the other hand, are not burdened by the favors of taxpayers or the whims of politicians. If the company can raise money, it can build a spaceship. Inevitably, this free market favors those who already have a lot of money. However, this does not apply to all companies in the private space sector.

"We don't have multiple billionaires funding us," admits Jeff Greason, CEO of XCOR. For him, the construction of a suborbital tourist boat is part of a long-term strategy. "We need to start seeing what fully reusable orbital systems look like and develop older versions to learn how to build them."

2.  Reduced cost of space access

Now, if you want to launch a satellite, it will cost more than up12m, which is before compulsory insurance (sometimes the price can be increased by 2 times). Conventional space rockets cannot only be used once but are also very expensive to launch and competition is limited.

Compare that to the flying 250,000 costs of flying on a reusable virgin spacecraft. Scientific institutions have already signed up to conduct pilot experiments on these suborbital flights. If the next generation of spaceflight can reach orbit, this will significantly reduce the cost of entering space.

This means that satellites, spacecraft, and space exploration missions can be launched at a fraction of the cost. The final frontier could become economically viable for many people.

This is certainly what excites Virgin Galactic CEO and former NASA employee George Whitesides. "By reducing the cost of access to space, we can send small nanosatellites all over the solar system and do this amazing science. I think it would be profound if we could address some of these challenges by demonstrating access to space technology.”

The great potential importance of “space tourism"

There are 4 fundamental reasons why it is important for “space tourism" to become a large-scale and dynamic space activity:

A.     As the end of the self

This could become a broader and ever-growing area of space activity than the areas of communications, navigation, positioning, remote sensing, and space-related information...

B.     As a way to reach the other edge of space

Providing services to such a large market will reduce the unit cost of producing and operating spacecraft, namely the dollar per pound or per capita, and the cost of living of foreigners.

It is estimated that the federal tax generated by startups with multiple sources of the annual revenue of 1 10 billion will fund most of our private space programs.

And having a lot of people who are personally and directly involved in space will give greater constitutive support to our federal civil space program and help us understand what to do in space, and what to do with it.

C.     As facilitators of other space activities

Achieving the technical and operational advances necessary to effectively serve this important new market will facilitate and encourage the launch of new large-scale activities/programs, such as space solar energy, space sports, space research (especially life sciences related to human aging), exploration, and colonization of the human solar system.

D.     As a clear expression of the character of our society

The United States and other democratic countries are made up of egalitarian societies. Therefore, whatever else we do in the universe-whatever else we do! -- We should see Earth's universe begin to be open to all our ordinary citizens.

That is, we need to put more emphasis today on civilian space programs with an emphasis on "bringing space to the people," as well as, "Bringing our people into space."

3.  Eras of Exploration

The concepts of discovery and Exploration have been frequently discovered in space literature recently, with a new vision of space exploration called the Spirit of New Discovery, promulgated by President Bush in 2004/1. The same concept is highlighted in the report of the Aldridge Committee on the implementation of the United States Space Exploration Policy, entitled “A Journey to Inspire, Innovate and Discover”. The question “should we explore?” "It must be considered in a deeply historical context, not in the context of modern politics or whims.

Historians believe that the period of discovery in the FIFTEENTH and SIXTEENTH centuries, associated with European explorers as the sailors Prince Henry, Columbus, and Magellan, the second period of the EIGHTEENTH and NINETEENTH centuries, characterized by other expeditions geographical, as the voyage of Captain Cook, supported and promoted by the scientific revolution, the third period starting with the International Geophysical Year and Sputnik, mainly associated with space exploration, but also with Antarctica and the ocean.

The historian Stephen J Pyne argues, “Exploration is a particular invention of a particular civilization made in a particular historical period. This is not the case... Universal property of all human society. Not all cultures have explored or traveled much. Some have been content to exist in xenophobic isolation."

More Advantages of Space Exploration

Exploring the universe has been mankind's dream for several centuries. People in history could see the stars and study the motion of the planets with telescopes to find out what else is there. Today, space exploration is not only possible, but there are many benefits that we can enjoy and appreciate. These are some of these advantages of space exploration.

Unify the nation

If there's one thing the whole world can take, its space exploration. Countries may struggle to go with respect to Planet Earth, but everyone wants to explore the universe. With the infinite possibilities of the universe, countries can come together in this theme 1 to achieve something.

Disaster forecasting

Some say that the question of the cost of space exploration outweighs the fact that one day can lead to the prediction of natural disasters. Scientists believe that exploring space and space models will help give an idea of the next great flood, tsunami, tornado and even earthquake. It may be a few years from now, but pursuing it as a goal may be one of the great benefits of space exploration. It already helps scientists predict climate conditions beneficial to farmers and ranchers.

Improved medical equipment

Exploring space has helped the medical field a lot. As a result of space exploration, advances have been made in the medical field, including devices that can detect cancer before it spreads too much and laser eye surgery technology. In addition, space exploration has developed safety devices such as smoke detectors and flame-retardant clothing and textiles.

New scientist

There are many youngsters who are interested in the idea of space exploration. As a result, they pursue a scientific education so they can live off their passion for the study of the universe and all it has to offer. Many of the new generations of scientists are entering the field for their love of space exploration.

Resource Links:                           







"Space, the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise. Your permanent mission: to explore new strange worlds, to seek new lives and civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before!"

We plan to start with these famous words of Captain Jean-Luc Picard of Star Trek: The Next generation because no one travels in space better (fictionally, of course) than them. It seems like a crazy idea for average people like us to travel in space. However, 20 companies are currently working on their technology that could soon allow more humans to travel into space and send unmanned spacecraft for innovative cosmic explorations.

Space X

It's no surprise here because SpaceX is constantly making headlines around the world by successfully carrying out innovative space missions throughout the year. Founded by Elon Musk, the company is a world leader in the design, manufacture and launch of advanced rockets and spacecraft. SpaceX aims to revolutionize space technology to allow our civilization to live on other planets. Starting in 2018, SpaceX will send a crew into space as part of NASA's Commercial Crew program.

Space IL

SpaceIL is an Israeli non-governmental team currently participating in the Google Lunar XPRIZE: a modern race to the Moon competition. Beyond the competition, however, SpaceIL aims to inspire the next generation of Israelis to explore space. The group wants to do this using their spaceship's future success story.

To win the competition, SpaceIL has three main tasks to accomplish.

  1. Gently land the unmanned spacecraft on the surface of the Moon without crashing.
  2. It travels about 500 meters above, above or below the surface of the Moon.
  3. It transmits video and high definition images to Earth.

"Space, the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise. Your permanent mission: to explore new strange worlds, to seek new lives and civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before!"

We plan to start with these famous words of Captain Jean-Luc Picard of Star Trek: The Next generation because no one travels in space better (fictionally, of course) than them. It seems like a crazy idea for average people like us to travel in space. However, 20 companies are currently working on their technology that could soon allow more humans to travel into space and send unmanned spacecraft for innovative cosmic explorations.

Virgin Galactic

Dubbed the world's first "space line," Virgin Galactic ultimate's goal is to make space accessible to more people. This goes hand in hand with the desire to carry out other significant space explorations. Since the space race began in the 1960s, only 559 people have visited space. Virgin Galactic is working to open up the vast cosmic arena to the rest of us. "Our goal is to become the space line for Earth; democratize access to space for the benefit of life on Earth," said the space line.

Blue Origin

Founded by Jeff Bezos of Amazon, Blue Origin is a privately funded aerospace manufacturer and spaceflight service. They are working on the development of technologies that enable private travel in human space at low cost and greater reliability. Blue Origin is animated by the motto "Gradatim Ferociter" or “step by step, fiercely."Its incremental development process builds on each of the company's successes as it continuously develops revolutionary spaceflight systems.

Axiom space

It is the world's first private commercial space station. Axiom Space wants to build a private international space station that will be the successor to the ISS (International Space Station). The company provides services for a number of diverse sectors, such as sovereign astronaut missions, space tourism missions, in-orbit research, in-orbit manufacturing, space exploration system testing, and academic research and outreach programs.

Space Nation

Space Nation is a space media company based in Helsinki, Finland, which has played a leading role in the global space boom by announcing the launch of the Space Nation astronaut program, accessible to all. The Finnish start-up envisions a nation of space citizens by unleashing space discovery, education and well-being. You can enroll in their astronaut program for free and discover their potential for space discovery.

Space Adventures

Space Adventures was founded in 1998 by Eric C. Founded by Anderson, he also founded aerospace, adventure travel and entertainment companies. Somehow, Space Adventures is the combination of the three!

While enrolled in the NASA Academy program, Anderson began thinking about how NASA could launch ordinary citizens into space at a reasonable cost. Three people actually created the first space tourism company in late 90s and named it Space Adventures, these were Anderson, Peter Diamandis (founder of the X Prize) and Mike McDowell (founder of Quark Expeditions)

After that, Space Adventures has successfully travelled the bureaucracy of the aerospace industry. They have helped seven people visit the International Space Station and countless others have had near-space experiences right here on earth. This includes weightless flights and visits to watch launches at the Baikonur Cosmodrome.

Where do Space Adventures come from?

Space Adventures does not operate its own rockets or space planes to launch customers into space. Instead, they hire seats on Russian Soyuz rockets when Roscosmos is willing and able to sell an available seat.

Before they can launch, Space Adventures customers must also undergo astronaut training. It will have to spend a few months in Star City, Russia.. In short, it's a big commitment to go into space with Space Adventures, but by the end of 2019, they're the only ones who can get there!

Since the launch of Roscosmos from the Baikonur cosmodrome in southern Kazakhstan, it is from there that Space Adventures also "launches".

Bigelow Aerospace

Bigelow Aerospace is an American space technology startup that manufactures and develops expandable space station modules. Bigelow Aerospace was founded by Robert Bigelow in 1998 and is headquartered in North Las Vegas, Nevada. It is funded in large part by the profits Bigelow earned through its ownership of the Budget Suites of America hotel chain.

In 2013, Bigelow had invested $ 2.25 billion in the company. Bigelow has repeatedly stated that it is ready to fund Bigelow Aerospace with approximately US 5.5 billion through 2015 in order to achieve large-scale hardware launch.

Bigelow Aerospace announced in 2010 its intention to create a modular set of space habitats for the creation or expansion of space stations, but despite many concepts and models, it has never completed an active space station beyond two small prototypes that flew in 2006 and 2007.

In March 2020, the company laid off all 88 employees and said this was due to the COVID-19 pandemic. He also announced that he would re-hire staff when conditions permitted.

Northrop Grumman (NOC)

Northrop Grumman is one of the world's leading arms manufacturers, with annual sales of over 3.3 billion. Although recently the company is known primarily for its development of stealth bombers, it has been working in the field of space technology development for more than 60 years.

Northrop Grumman is currently working on the construction of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The company is also involved in the development of the Chandra space telescope and the Dawn asteroid explorer, as well as programmes to develop technology for observing the Earth from space.

Lockheed Martin (LMT)

Lockheed Martin, the world's largest defense contractor, is also a major player in the space industry. As a NASA contractor, the company built parts for the Apollo 11 spacecraft in the 1960s, as well as satellites and space probes. Lockheed Martin's other major space projects include the Orion spacecraft and the Mars InSight lander.

In terms of stock prices, Lockheed Martin is the highest on this list, having reached almost 4,440 in February of this year. During the crisis-related crash in mid-March, the company's shares fell to just under$ 300, suffering far less than the vast majority of other shares. It also recovered very well, reaching over 4,400 in the first week of June.

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Space tourism could have significant implications for the Earth’s Climate. New computer simulations suggest that soot emitted by rockets could increase temperatures at the poles, significantly reducing the seasonal ice sheet, but uncertainty remains about the assumptions used in the study.

In the coming years, space tourism companies hope to start regularly flying passengers on a suborbital spaceflight. Now, Martin Ross of the Aerospace Corporation in Los Angeles, California, and his colleagues have made the first detailed simulations of the effects of flights on Earth's climate.

They assumed a flight rate of 1000 suborbital trips per year, the number advanced in business plans for space tourism in 2020, and the estimated emissions of a rubber combustion engine such as the one planned for Virgin Galactic's Spaceship Two.

The researchers found that the effect of soot, which is an incomplete burned fuel, would damage that of carbon dioxide emissions from launches. Soot easily absorbs sunlight, warming the atmosphere where it is abundant.

Above atmosphere

The 1,000 annual launches would belch about 600 tons of soot, or black carbon, less than the current production of aircraft and other sources. But flat soot occurs at altitudes low enough for rain to pull it out of the atmosphere in a few days or weeks. Rockets expel the substance at three times higher altitudes, into the stratosphere more than 40 kilometers above sea level. There, well above time, it can stay up to 10 years.

To study the effects of black carbon emissions, Ross's team used a 3D simulation of the Earth's climate. They assumed that all black carbon is emitted over Spaceport America, a space tourism center under construction in New Mexico, USA.

The researchers found that black carbon caused an increase in temperatures at the north and south poles. The increase was about 0.2 °C for most of the year but peaked at about 1 °C during the winter of each hemisphere. The additional heat melted the sea ice at each pole, especially in Antarctica, where the area covered by ice decreased by 18% in the summer.

Space tourism will accelerate climate change

Scientists predict that soot from commercial spaceflight will change global temperatures.

Climate change caused by black carbon, also known as soot, emitted during a decade of commercial spaceflight would be comparable to that of today's global aviation, researchers believe.

The findings, published in a press article in Geophysical Research Letters 1, suggest that emissions from 1,000 rockets launched per year would persist at a high level in the stratosphere, which could alter global atmospheric circulation and ozone distribution. Simulations show that changes in earth's climate could increase polar surface temperatures by 1 °C and reduce polar sea ice by 5-15%.

"There are fundamental limits to the amount of material that humans can put into orbit without having a significant impact," says Martin Ross, an atmospheric scientist at the Aerospace Corporation in Los Angeles, California, and author of the study.

Private Spaceflight is a mature industry. Spaceport America, a launch site in Las Cruces, New Mexico, opened its first runway on October 22. Over the next three years, companies like Virgin Galactic, based in Spaceport America, expect to make up to two launches a day for space tourists. At the same time, the NASA Authorization Act passed by the United States Congress in September provides for US billion 1.6 billion in private investment in spaceflight to develop vehicles to carry astronauts and cargo into orbit.

"There are basic limits to the quantity of material that humans can place into orbit without having a significant implications.”

Corporate rockets burn a mixture of kerosene & liquid oxygen. But several private spaceflight companies, such as Virgin Galactic, could soon use a cheaper "hybrid" rocket engine that ignites synthetic hydrocarbons with nitrous oxide, Ross says. These hybrid engines emit more black carbon than a kerosene and oxygen engine, he adds.

"Rain and weather remove these particles from the atmosphere close to the Earth's surface, but in the stratosphere there is no rain and they may remain for 3 to 10 years," says Michael Mills, an atmospheric chemist and another author of the paper at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado.

Soot surprise

The researchers made global atmospheric models of an injection of approximately 600 tons of black carbon per year at one location: Las Cruces. The results showed a layer of soot in the stratosphere that remains less than 10 ° latitude from the launch site, Ross says. In addition, about 80% of black carbon remained in the northern hemisphere, extending between 25° and 45 ° north latitude.

The black carbon layer caused a temperature decrease of about 0.4 °C in the tropical and subtropical regions, while the temperature at the poles increased between 0.2 and 1 °C, he says, stressing that the exact details need to be refined with other models. Black carbon also resulted in ozone reductions of up to 1.7% in tropical and subtropical regions, and increases of 5-6% in Polar Regions.

Impacts on the atmosphere and climate

The stratosphere is the section of the atmosphere where the ozone layer resides and it is this that causes the effect that the area creates. While below the tropopause (from the Earth's surface upwards) the temperature decreases with altitude, above there is an inversion; in the stratosphere, the temperature increases with altitude because ozone absorbs shortwave radiation from the sun. Temperature inversion creates a stable density structure in the stratosphere and the reversal circulation that occurs here is, therefore, slow Associated with low moisture content, meaning no clouds form and therefore no rain. These factors, along with the low density that reduces coagulation, mean that the particles emitted here have a residence time of several years, rather than the weeks they would have in the troposphere.

The results of the 2010 modeling study that Toohey co-wrote showed a non-uniform effect on the world of regular sustained launches of these spacecraft. Assuming a launch site at a latitude of approximately 33 ° N (consistent with where Virgin Galactic's America Spaceport was built), most of British Columbia was bounded between 25°N and 45°N and only about 20% of British Columbia traveled in the southern hemisphere. This asymmetry could be the cause of modeled ozone depletion in the tropics and subtropics, but an increase at the poles. This change in ozone distribution has been attributed to a higher stratospheric inversion circulation in previous studies, which has been shown to be caused by relatively small differential warming effects in the stratosphere.

In the stratospheric zone of the northern hemisphere, where most of BC was distributed, the temperature increased around 0.2°C while, at very little BC. They were in the southern hemisphere, there was no heating. This suggests that the latitude of the launch site may play an important role in the effect on ozone distribution, which has been shown to reduce ozone in the tropics by the same amount as CFCs. The increase in the stratospheric circulation caused by the charge in BC is approximately equivalent to the changes induced in this circulation due to modeled greenhouse gas emissions.

How do rocket emissions affect ozone and climate?

The rocket releases various substances depending on its propellant. Some, such as liquid hydrogen and oxygen (H2 / O2) are very clean, emitting mainly water (H2O) and nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by the heat of combustion. Others, such as aluminum/ammonium perchlorate (or" Solid rocket engines", SRM) release particles of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and alumina (Al2O3). Rockets using hydrazine (N2H4) and nitrogen tetroxide (N2o4) (sometimes called "hypergolic" because these chemicals spontaneously ignite when they come into contact) can produce large amounts of nitrogen oxides and react with atmospheric water vapor and sulfuric acid to form small particles containing nitric acid.. Kerosene rockets (essentially "airplane fuel") produce CO2 and black carbon ("soot"), which are climatically active gases (meaning they absorb infrared or visible light, heating the surrounding air).

There is a new type of propeller called "hybrid" that is used by some private companies. Hybrids are a mixture of a liquid oxidizer, nitrous oxide (N2O), and solid synthetic rubber (butadiene) that, when burned in an oxygen-poor environment of the upper atmosphere, produce CO2 and large amounts of soot (which is easily visible in the photos of these rockets as it is black or gray) and probably large amounts of nitric oxides (although there are no measurements on these plumes to verify the presence of NOx).

Reference Links:

https://www.sgr.org.uk/resources/flights-sense-how-space-tourism-will-alter-climate                                                    https://atoc.colorado.edu/~toohey/basics.html


Man is curious by his nature, and space travel is an extreme curiosity for humanity. Few million people have had the opportunity to resolve their curiosity, but what about millions resting?? When could an ordinary man be able to realize the destiny of his dreams?? Millions of questions relate to the mind, but there was no answer for this couple of years. However, the distant dream of exploring space by the common man became a reality with the introduction of the space industry. People would like to experience space travel for several reasons. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a brief overview of the space tourism industry, its emerging trends and the degree of commercial viability, as well as the risk factors involved, followed by the conclusion.

The word space invigorates the enthusiasm of any curious individual towards the darkness of the universe, not literally, but one tries to see the light beyond that darkness. Curiosity takes hold of us. With all due respect to people who believe in the saying that curiosity kills, after all it is curiosity that has allowed humanity to reach the heights it has. Space exploration, aerodynamics, technology, communications, satellites, orbits and the list goes on are attributed to curiosity and enthusiasm for aviation and space exploration. Space is a term that can refer to various phenomena in science, mathematics and communication.

The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "visit and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited". Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2007, there were more than 903 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6. 6% compared to 2006. International tourism revenues in India amounted to $ 856 billion in 2007. The first earth vehicle penetrated the orbit around the Earth more than three decades ago, but since this space-time has remained strictly in the field of national governments and professional astronauts. Throughout human history, there has always been a strong desire to explore and travel to new and exciting places.

Orbital space tourism

The advent of space tourism came in the late 1990s with an agreement between the Russian company MirCorp and the American company Space Adventures Ltd. MirCorp was a private company in charge of the Mir space station. To generate revenue for the maintenance of the old space station, MirCorp decided to sell a trip to Mir, and Tito became its first paying passenger. However, before Tito could make his journey, the decision was made to deorbite Mir, and-after the intervention of Space Adventures Ltd.- the mission was diverted to the ISS. Tito, who paid $ 2.2 billion for his flight on the Russian Soyuz TM-32 spacecraft, spent seven days aboard the ISS and is considered the world's first space tourist. However, given the arduous training required for his mission, Tito opposed the use of the word tourist, and since his flight, the term spaceflight participant has been used more often to distinguish commercial space travelers from career astronauts.

Orbital space tourism continued to grow after Tito's mission, with flights to the ISS by South African millionaire Mark Shuttleworth in 2002 and American businessman Gregory Olsen in 2005. These travelers were followed by Iranian-born American businesswoman Anousheh Ansari, who became the fourth participant in a space flight and the first paid female space traveler when she visited the ISS in September 2006. The following year, American billionaire Charles Simonyi joined the ranks of spaceflight participants when he shared a trip with two cosmonauts aboard Soyuz TMA-10 for a 10-day stay on the ISS, and Simonyi made a second flight in 2009. The sixth participant in space flight, American video game developer Richard Garriott, was released in October 2008. On making his flight, Garriott became the first second-generation American in space, as his father, Owen Garriott, was a former astronaut. (Cosmonauts Aleksandr Volkov and his son Sergey were the first father-son space travelers. Sergey Volkov was in the ISS when Garriott arrived. No spaceflight participant has visited the ISS since Canadian businessman Guy Laliberté in 2009, but Space Adventures has announced that two passengers will travel to the ISS in 2021. Since 2007, Space Adventures has been offering a spaceflight around the Moon aboard a Soyuz spacecraft for $ 100 million. 

Suborbital space tourism

Although the orbital space tourism industry attracted a lot of media attention after Tito's flight, other companies also worked hard to make space tourism a cost-effective proposition by developing suborbital vehicles designed to carry passengers to an altitude of 100 km (62 miles). In addition to the goal of making space tourism commercially viable, companies were competing for the Ansari X Prize, a $ 10 million prize offered by the X Prize Foundation to the first non-governmental organization to launch a reusable spacecraft manned twice in two weeks into space. (Part of the prize money was donated by Anousheh Ansari and his brother-in-law, Iran-born American businessman Amir Ansari. On October 4, 2004, SpaceShipOne, funded by Virgin Galactic and designed by American engineer Burt Rutan of Scaled Composites, won the X Award and in doing so ushered in a new era of commercial crewed spaceflight and space tourism.

In 2004, the United States Commercial Space Launches Amendment Act (CSLAA) provided guidelines to regulate the safety of human commercial spaceflight in the United States under the auspices of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Under the CSLAA, FAA representatives will attend each launch, evaluate each landing, and work together with space tour operators; however, the FAA will not be able to impose safety rules until 2023 unless there is a serious incident. The guidelines require space tour operators to inform space flight participants in writing of the risks associated with launch and re-entry and the safety history of the launch vehicle. The CSLAA guidelines also require space flight participants to give their informed consent to participate in launch and re-entry.

Phases of Space Tourism

Like any other company, once space tourism is launched, it will gradually expand. It may be helpful to think that this goes through several phases. From a relatively small scale and relatively high price" pioneer phase", the scale of activity will increase and prices will decrease as it matures. Eventually, it will become a mass enterprise, like today's aviation.

Pioneering phase

The phrase "adventure travel in space" was suggested by Boeing's Gordon Woodcock, and is convenient for describing the first phase. Guests will be relatively few, from hundreds a year to thousands a year; prices will be high, 5 50,000 and more; and service will be closer to "adventure travel" than luxury hotel style. Orbital accommodation will be safe but "spartan".

Maturity phase

This will cause demand to increase from thousands of passengers per year to hundreds of thousands per year. Tickets to orbit will cost less, and flights will depart from many different airports. Orbital facilities will grow from simple clusters of prefabricated modules to large structures built in orbit for hundreds of guests, allowing for a wide range of orbital entertainment.

Mass phase

Ticket prices will fall to the equivalent of a few thousand dollars, and customers will grow from hundreds of thousands to millions of passengers a year. Seemingly unthinkable for most people in the space industry, even 1 million passengers a year is only 8 hours of aviation! And aviation continues to grow rapidly to the current level of 1 billion passengers per year. So there's no reason to assume that space travel will stop growing. There is certainly no limit to possible destinations. And the access to space resources that the low-cost launch will bring will ensure that economic growth does not have to stop for at least a few millennia.

Future prospects

Now SpaceX is the only option for someone looking to go into space and orbit the Earth. It currently has two planned tourist launches. The first is scheduled for September 2021, funded by billionaire entrepreneur Jared Isaacman. The other trip, scheduled for 2022, is organized by Axiom Space. These trips will be expensive, at 5 55 million for the flight and a stay on the International Space Station. The high cost has led some to warn that space tourism - and private access to space in general-could reinforce inequalities between rich and poor. Suborbital travel of Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic are much more reasonable in terms of cost, with prices between 2 200,000 and Virgin 250,000. Blue Origin appears to be the closest to allowing customers to pay on board, saying after a recent launch that manned missions would happen soon. Virgin Galactic continues to test SpaceShipTwo, but no specific schedule for tourist flights has been announced. Although these prices are high, it is worth considering that Dennis 20 million Dennis Tito tickets in 2001 could soon pay for 100 flights on Blue Origin. The experience of seeing the Earth from space, however, can prove invaluable to a whole new generation of space explorers.

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Mr. Richard Branson accomplished his goal of reaching space on Sunday, nearly 17 years after launching Virgin Galactic. As per the news reported on Sunday, the company's spaceship VSS Unity took off over the skies of New Mexico, guided by two pilots, carrying Richard Branson along with three other Virgin Galactic employees respectively. In case if you don’t know, Branson is the first billionaire of a space company, to fly in his spaceship.

Richard Branson's dream of reaching space was accomplished after 17 years of research and development work, comprising of more than a billion dollars investment made in Virgin Galactic. Richard Branson, the British billionaire, has safely flown to the edge of space and returned in his Virgin Galactic passenger spacecraft, days ahead of the Amazon founder Jeff Bezos spacecraft launch, as these billionaires race in the emergence of a new era of “space tourism.”

When the billionaire founder’s spaceflight took off, Branson tweeted with a picture of himself in zero gravity, “Welcome to the dawn of a new space age.” News reported that when the billionaire landed back on earth, he mentioned that it was his dream since childhood to fly into space, exploring the beautiful sights and the view of the earth. He said, “I have dreamt of this moment since I was a kid, and honestly nothing could prepare you for the view of Earth from space.” He even called the space flight experience, the best whole experience of his lifetime.

On Sunday, the company's spaceship VSS Unity took off over the skies of New Mexico, guided by two pilots, carrying Richard Branson along with three employees of Virgin Galactic. VSS Unity, after being launched above 40,000 feet (12.19 kilometers) by an aircraft named “VMS Eve” ignited its rocket engine and accelerated to 3+ times the speed of sound in a journey to the edge of space. When the Virgin Galactic crew became weightless and drifted around the spaceship cabin, VSS Unity attempted a graceful backflip in microgravity. The spaceship flew to a height of 282,000 feet (86.1 kilometers) respectively. Afterward, the vehicle glided back into the atmosphere, landing on the runway at Spaceport America from which it had taken off earlier. The two pilots named “Dave Mackay and Michael Masucci” were responsible for flying the spacecraft successfully.

As per the reports, the billionaire founder, who founded Virgin Galactic in 2004, wanted to travel space on his spacecraft to test the flight and spaceship himself before he makes it a commercial flight to space for tourists. Furthermore, it was reported that he wanted to test the future passenger’s flight as a test subject, to feel the experience for future customers. The mission was quite successful and felt like a dream come true for the billionaire founder. Alongside Branson, the other three employees named “Beth Moses (astronaut chief instructor of Virgin Galactic), Colin Bennett (lead operations engineer of Virgin Galactic), and Sirisha Bandla (vice president of government research and affairs)” did the same thing by testing the flight for future customers.

As per the company, the VSS Unity spacecraft is designed and developed to carry up to six passengers and two pilots. The firm has roughly 600 bookings for future flights, with costs ranging from $200,000 to $250,000 per ticket. It’s indeed a flight to remember.

Based on the goals set by the billionaire’s company, this was Virgin Galactic's fourth mission, it's second this year, and the first with more than one passenger. Apart from flying Brandon on the spacecraft, the spaceflight had additional aims, as Virgin Galactic is continuously testing its spaceship system, intending to launch commercial service in early 2022. The reason why the spacecraft is being repeatedly tested is to guarantee problem-free space travel to customers in the future, ensuring both safety and security. Additionally, Bandla is responsible to put her research skills to the test. Furthermore, the current Sunday’s spaceflight is among the three more remainings to complete the development operation of Virgin Galactic, and start space tourism for customers in the future.

Branson always dreamed of going into space ever since he saw the Apollo moon landings. Then in 2004, he formed Virgin Galactic with the sole purpose of transporting private people to space. He founded the firm to purchase a spaceship manufactured by aerospace designer “Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites.” The designer is famous for creating the “SpaceShipOne” vehicle, which won him a 10 million dollars award for flying twice to the edge of space in two weeks time period.









Richard Branson, the British billionaire’s private space company “Virgin Galactic Holdings Inc” successfully finished its third flight to Mexico from its new homeport. As per the reports, this is a milestone for the company, as it took it 2 decades to develop a commercial spacecraft to launch paid customers to outer space. Because of this technology, people who are interested to travel into space will also get a chance.

The spacecraft “Branson's SpaceShipTwo” lifted off within the desert about 45 miles northeast of Las Cruces, New Mexico (NM). This occurred in the morning time at 10:35 a.m. The spacecraft traveled for 2,300+ miles within an hour. After 50 minutes, the craft reached a particular height, which is recognized as space as per NASA’s viewpoint. The craft has now earned a suborbital status of the flight.

Since it was a milestone for Branson, he posted the news with pictures on social media with the caption "Delighted to be on the flight line to Virgin Galactic's first human spaceflight from the majestic Spaceport America." The firm stated CJ Sturckow and Dave Mackay were on the deck, reaching to space, while the aircraft was being operated by Kelly Latimer and Michael Masucci to help the crew take off.

The spacecraft, which may accommodate six people, safely slid with their two pilots at around 11:45 a.m. to a touchdown on a runway. The company was so excited, that it mentioned that the views they acknowledge at the time of travel were mesmerizing. Beautiful combination of the blue-rimmed curvature of the globe against the blackness of space. Their experience today gives the future astronauts of the Virgin Galactic spacecraft gives a glimpse of what lies ahead.

The Virgin Galactic company announced the speed the spacecraft covered, which was equal to three times the speed of sound in air. The spacecraft covered an altitude of 89 kilometers, which is 55 miles above sea level.

Branson founded his company back in 2004 and it’s the third time his company reported reaching space. As per the Washington Post, it reported that this flight comes at a critical time for Branson as his space venture is facing intense competition Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin. The billionaire is the founder of Amazon and Blue Origin is his own effort to create a commercial spaceline.

The CEO of Virgin Galactic, Mr. Michael Colglazier added that there are two more test flights ahead to check out their spacecraft functionality. The next mission will occur with four specialist passengers within the cabin. Furthermore, he added that there is another pending flight, which will take Branson to the edge of the space. As per the third flight, he added: "The flight today was elegant, beautiful.” The CEO declared that the data gathered from the spaceflights is going to be analyzed, however, watching the flights take off from the ground and communicating with the pilots in space from the ground is another magnificent feeling.

According to Virgin Galactic, the latest trip offered a review of horizontal stabilizer improvements, more flight checks, and a series of cabin cameras to transmit live flight views to ground workers. The shuttle also carried a scientific payload in cooperation with NASA's “Flight Opportunities Program.” Now, the company will analyze all data gathered, conduct a review, and inspect the mother ship and spaceship thoroughly. Once the test results are confirmed, the company will plan another milestone, taking a flight to space once again.

Based on the insides, Mr. CJ Sturckow and Dave Mackay were on VSS Unity’s landing deck, while Kelly Latimer and Michael Masucci were pilots for VMS Eve. CJ is said to be the first person from three separate countries who flew as pilot-in-command. Virgin Galactic notes that New Mexico’s white sands park sparkled beautifully from the ground. A maintenance examination of the special carrier aircraft, which takes the six-passenger spacecraft to high altitudes and is released to fire a rocket engine and propel them ultimately to space, was included in the preparations for the launch of a new mission.








At the press conference following the Blue Origin spaceflight, Jeff Bezos revealed a new charitable initiative. 

On 20th July 2021, Jeff Bezos became the second billionaire to reach the edge of space, and the best part is, he did it inside a spacecraft manufactured by a company he founded. The Amazon's founder, who stepped down as CEO earlier in July 2021, took off early Tuesday within the same month alongside three crewmates on the first-ever flight of Blue Origin's New Shepard spacecraft. It’s indeed a turning point for mankind, opening new doors to space tourism. 

Previously it was Richard Branson, the British billionaire founder of Virgin Galactic as the first-ever person to fly into space within his spacecraft back on July 11. So competing against a fellow billionaire Richard Branson, Bezos launched in his spacecraft “blue origin” alongside his brother Mark and two other passengers. The two were Wally Funk (an 82 years old aviation pioneer) and Oliver Daemen (an 18 years old Dutch Student). As per the reports, Wally Funk is the oldest ever person to fly into space and Oliver Daemen is the youngest to fly into space. Both of these passengers have indeed made a remarkable history and would be remembered for a long time.

The self-driving New Shepard, which comprises of a rocket topped by a capsule, took flight in the morning on 20th July 2021, from Blue Origin's “Launch Site One” in the Van Horn’s West Texas town. The capsule took off to space with Jeff Bezos, along with two other history-making passengers. The capsule was reported 351,050 feet (107 kilometers) above Earth before landing in the West Texas scrublands by parachute. The rocket landed back on earth successfully in a vertical direction, powered at the landing zone designated for the spacecraft. Its landing was marked by a thunderous “sonic boom,” as well as loud cheers from Blue Origin employees who were on hand to witness the flight’s landing through the naked eye. The amazing part is, all this experience (launching and landing) took only 10 minutes in total. However, those 10 minutes were lifetime experiences for passengers making history.

As per the experience regarding space travel, the members of the crew of Blue Origin unbuckled their seatbelts and hovered in weightlessness for a few minutes, shouting enthusiastically as they saw the beautiful sights of space through the window. The spacecraft began to fall over the 62-mile line that marks the globally accepted space boundary. Parachutes assisted it in successfully landing back on Earth around 10 minutes after takeoff.

The rocket sped fast as it devoured its supply of super cold “liquid oxygen” and “hydrogen propellants,” causing the passengers to push back in their “recliner-style seats” with approximately three times the normal force of gravity. Upon landing, Bezos said “It was the best day ever,” and further added that the feeling of accomplishment was “unbelievably good.” He even mentioned that the crew members felt really happy regarding the whole space travel experience.

The mission set by Jeff Bezos was a big dream, and a step towards a new era of space tourism. Blue Origin's “10-minute flight” on 20th July of 2021, was a game-changer for the company. In comparison to industry rivals SpaceX (established by Elon Musk), and Virgin Galactic (established by Richard Branson), the firm has remained relatively secretive about the creation of its spacecraft. Blue Origin, like Virgin Galactic, which sent Branson into space on July 11, expects to begin offering client trips on New Shepard later this year. As per the news from the company’s insights, up to six passengers will be able to experience the brief thrill journey to space, which includes weightlessness (for 4 minutes) on those flights.

In recent years, Bezos, who stepped down as CEO of Amazon to focus on Blue Origin (the space firm he created in 2000), has sold approximately 1 billion dollars in Amazon stock each year, just to fund Blue Origin. Apart from the recent trip, Blue Origin is also working on more ambitious initiatives. The spacecraft named New Glenn is designed as a lunar lander and a bigger rocket that might transport humans into Earth orbit and beyond.











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